The same word is used with two different meanings.
- Criminal actions are illegal, and all murder trials are
criminal actions, thus all murder trials are illegal. (Here the
term "criminal actions" is used with two different meanings.
Example borrowed from Copi.)
- The sign said "fine for parking here", and since it was
fine, I parked there.
- All child-murderers are inhuman, thus, no child-murderer is human.
(From Barker, p. 164; this is called "illicit obversion")
- A plane is a carpenter's tool, and the Boeing 737 is a
plane, hence the Boeing 737 is a carpenter's tool. (Example
borrowed from Davis, p. 58)
Identify the word which is used twice, then show that a
definition which is appropriate for one use of the word would
not be appropriate for the second use.
(Barker: 163, Cedarblom and Paulsen: 142, Copi and Cohen: 113, Davis: 58)
26 May 1995