The effect is caused by a number of objects or events, of
which the cause identified is only a part. A variation of this is
the feedback loop where the effect is itself a part of the cause.
- The accident was caused by the poor location of the bush.
(True, but it wouldn't have occurred had the driver not been
drunk and the pedestrian not been jaywalking.)
- The Challenger explosion was caused by the cold
weather. (True, however, it would not have occurred had the
O-rings been properly constructed.)
- People are in fear because of increased crime. (True, but
this has lead people to break the law as a consequence of
their fear, which increases crime even more.)
Show that all of the causes, and not just the one mentioned,
are required to produce the effect.
Cedarblom and Paulsen: 238
06 October 1995