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Logic Resources: Branches of Logic Once you are past the basic, you come to see that logic has many branches and flavours. Much of this is documented on the web. This page points you to sites devoted to some particular branch or another.
**Alternative Logic** This is a term I coined to capture the various New Age logics which have emerged in recent years, the paradigm of which is deBono's Lateral Thinking.- Logic On-Line - contains references to the G.O.S.N. and S.I.D.P.E. methodologies
**Deontic Logic** This field of logic deals with permissions and obligations. It is typically used in the field of moral philosophy. Trying to teach it to computers is a bear. ;)- Deontic Logic - a one-line glossary entry
- Deontic Logic - a short description
- Deontic Logic Relativised to Bearers and Counterparties - a short paper
- The Deontic Logic Group - just a title so far; pages under construction
- Second International Workshop on Deontic Logic in Computer Science - outline only
- Third International Workshop on Deontic Logic in Computer Science programme and call for papers
**Description Logic** Description logics are languages tailored for expressing knowledge about concepts and concept hierarchies.- Description Logics at Intelligent Information Systems Laboratory, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University
**Epistemic Logic** Epistemic logic is the study of the relations between propositions describing states of knowledge and belief. For example, if I*know*that I am in France, does it follow that I ought to*believe*that I am in France?-
No references found - a few abstracts and book
titles, but that's it
**Fuzzy Logic** A lot of what is out there is imprecise. Many of the concepts and definitions that we employ are 'fuzzy'. This fact has lead to a branch of logic which takes fuzziness into account. The application of fuzzy logic theory concentrates mainly on two areas: system control and computer vision. Much of this list is taken from LogicaL at Globewide Network Academy.- Fuzzy Logic at the University of Missouri-Columbia
- Quadralay's Fuzzy Logic Page at Quadralay Corporation.
- Center for Intelligent Systems of Binghamton University.
- Bart Kosko at the Signal and Image Processing Institute of the University of Southern California.
- Lotfi Zadeh at the Computer Science and Engineering Division/ Berkeley Institute for Soft Computing (BISC) at the University of California at Berkeley.
- Center for Fuzzy Logic, Robotics, and Intelligent Systems (CFL) at Texas A&M University
- Fuzzy Logic Laboratorium at the Johannes Kepler University Linz.
- Intelligent Fuzzy Systems Laboratory in the Department of Industrial Engineering at the University of Toronto.
- Internet Fuzzy Logic Repository at the Institute for Telecommunication Sciences.
- Fuzzy Repository at Østfold College.
**Game Theory** Also known as*decision theory*, this branch of logic combines probability theory with the the value of certain outcomes.**Intensional Logic** Intensional (or indexical) logic is the study of assertions and other expressions whose meaning depends on an implicit context or index, such as time or spatial position.- Intensional Logic and Programming
- ISLIP'96 The NinthInternational Symposium on Languages for Intensional Programming, May13-15, 1996 Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA
**Many-Valued Logic** Most deductive logic assumes that a proposition is either*true*or*false*. Many-valued logic defines that assumption.- Many-valued Logics for Computer Science Applications of the of the Vienna Group for Multiple-valued Logics
**Mathematical Logic** This is the study of the logical foundations of mathematics. A fascinating discipline, but you*really*must enjoy squiggles in your text to enjoy it. Much of this list is borrowed from Boris Piwinger's list.- Kurt Goedel Society Home Page
- Mathematical Logic Group
- Institut für mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik
- Lehrstuhl für Mathematische Logik
- Institut für mathematische Logik und Grundlagenforschung
- Mathematical Logic
- Group in Logic at UC Berkeley
- Logic at UCLA
- Logic at UI Chicago
- IU Logic Program
- Mathematical Logic at Pennsylvania State University
- Kenneth Kunen
- Logic Group
- Seminar on Mathematical Logic
- Department of Mathematical Logic
- Mathematical Logic
- Logic seminar
- Mathematical Logic Group
- Mathematical Logic
- Mathematicians online
- MathSearch (search a collection of mathematical Web material)
- Famous Mathematicians - Chronological Index
- New Foundations Home Page
- The Beginnings of Set Theory
- Selected Logic Papers Other books by W.V. Quine avaiable from Harvard University Press
- Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics(book series by North-Holland)
- UMI (order papers...)
- Mathematical Logic Group at the University of Bonn
- Department of Mathematics (german)
- University of Bonn
- Luis Sanchis, Syracuse University
**Medieval Logic** Brought to us by the leading lights of the twelth century, Medieval Logic is for the most part the study of universal forms.- Mediaeval Logic and Philosophy by Paul Vincent Spade
**Modal Logic** Modal logic concerns the logic of possibility and necessity.- Jan O.M. Jaspars Home Page - links to some papers on modal logic
- Modal Logic - a very short sketch and some references
- Modal Logic - Examples - discussion of modal logic axiom systems and derived rules
- Propositional Modal Logic - a short sketch and some diagrams
**Paraconsistent Logic** Most forms of logic assume consistency, that is if*A*is true, then*Not A*must be false. Paraconsistent logic denies this basic assumption. This may sound like a denial of logic entirely, but given that many people hold inconsistent beliefs, it is an important area of study. Also, some forms of mathematical logic, such as intuitionisn, are variations on paraconsistent logic.- First World Congress on Paraconsistency First Announcement, Gent July 1997
**Persian Logic** I know nothing about Persian logic, so I'm not even going to try a short sketch...**Probability Theory** Probability theory is the study of the logic of statistical inferences.- Probability Theory: The Logic of Science
This is a major work by E.T. Jaynes. All the links are to PostScript files.
- Probability Theory: The Logic of Science
**Temporal Logic** Also known as*Tense Logic*, this branch of logic deals with temporal relations between propositons. A proposition which is true today may be false tomorrow; we need to understand what effect this has on the entailments of that proposition.- Some References for Temporal Logic - short list
02 February 1996
For Educators Stephen Downes Guide to the Logical Fallacies Copyright © Stephen Downes, 1995-2001 stephen.downes@ualberta.ca |